Nyungwe Forest National Park

Nyungwe Forest National Park

Nyungwe Forest National Park is a magnificent protected area located in the southwestern part of Rwanda, in the East African region; Covering an extensive area of approximately 1,019 square kilometers (393 square miles), it stands as one of the most pristine and ecologically diverse rainforests on the African continent; The park’s lush greenery, unique biodiversity, and stunning landscapes make it a must-visit destination for nature enthusiasts, adventure seekers, and wildlife lovers.

History and Establishment: Nyungwe Forest National Park was established in 2004 to safeguard the ecologically crucial montane rainforest ecosystem and to protect the numerous endangered species residing within its boundaries. It was created by combining two existing forest reserves, namely Nyungwe and Gisakura. The Rwandan government recognized the ecological importance of this area and designated it as a protected national park to preserve its rich biodiversity and contribute to Rwanda’s environmental conservation efforts.

Geography and Topography: The Park’s geography is characterized by a combination of rugged terrain and hilly landscapes, typical of the Albertine Rift region. It is situated at an elevation ranging from 1,600 to 2,950 meters (5,250 to 9,680 feet) above sea level. Nyungwe Forest is part of the larger Congo-Nile watershed, which means that its streams and rivers flow into both the Congo River to the west and the Nile River to the east.

Nyungwe Forest National Park

Biodiversity: One of Nyungwe Forest National Park’s most remarkable features is its astonishing biodiversity. The forest is a haven for an incredible variety of plant and animal species, including many that are rare or endangered. It is home to over 1,000 plant species, with a substantial number being endemic to the region. The park boasts approximately 310 bird species, including 27 that are endemic to the Albertine Rift, making it a paradise for birdwatchers.

Additionally, Nyungwe Forest supports 75 species of mammals, some of which are elusive and rarely seen in other parts of Africa. Notable mammals in the park include chimpanzees, colobus monkeys, golden monkeys, forest elephants, leopards, and various species of antelope.

Chimpanzee Trekking and Wildlife Viewing: One of the main attractions of Nyungwe Forest National Park is chimpanzee trekking. The park is renowned for its thriving chimpanzee population, and visitors have the opportunity to track these intelligent primates with the guidance of experienced park rangers.

Nyungwe Forest National Park

Apart from chimpanzees, visitors can also encounter other primates, such as the Angola colobus monkey, L’Hoest’s monkey, owl-faced monkey, and vervet monkeys; Other wildlife that can be spotted during forest walks and hikes include forest elephants, bushbucks, giant forest hogs, and a variety of bird species.

Canopy Walkway: Another highlight of the park is the famous Canopy Walkway, which offers a unique perspective of the forest. Suspended between giant trees and extending over 200 meters (656 feet) in length, the walkway allows visitors to experience the treetop ecosystem and observe various bird species and primates from above.

Conservation and Sustainability: Nyungwe Forest National Park plays a vital role in conservation efforts in Rwanda. The park’s protection and sustainable management are essential for preserving its fragile ecosystems and safeguarding the many endangered species that depend on it. Ecotourism in the park contributes to the local economy and helps promote environmental awareness among visitors.


Key Features and Attractions at Nyungwe Forest National Park.

Nyungwe Forest National Park is a treasure trove of natural wonders and offers a host of unique features and attractions that make it a must-visit destination for travelers and nature enthusiasts. Here are some of the key features and attractions at Nyungwe Forest National Park:

Pristine Montane Rainforest.

The park is characterized by its lush and ancient montane rainforest, which is one of the oldest in Africa. The forest is rich in biodiversity, housing an astounding array of plant and animal species, some of which are endemic to the region.

Chimpanzee Trekking.

Nyungwe is famous for its population of habituated chimpanzees, and visitors have the opportunity to participate in guided chimpanzee trekking experiences. Observing these intelligent primates in their natural habitat is a thrilling and unforgettable experience.

Canopy Walkway.

The Canopy Walkway is a highlight of Nyungwe Forest National Park. Suspended high above the forest floor, the walkway offers visitors a unique perspective of the treetop canopy, allowing them to see birds, monkeys, and other wildlife from a different vantage point.

Bird watching.

The park is a haven for birdwatchers, with over 310 bird species recorded within its boundaries. This includes 27 species that are endemic to the Albertine Rift region, making it a paradise for bird enthusiasts.

Colobus Monkey Tracking.

Apart from chimpanzees, Nyungwe is home to large troops of Angola colobus monkeys. Guided colobus monkey tracking experiences provide an opportunity to observe these fascinating primates as they swing gracefully through the treetops.

Waterfalls and Scenic Hiking Trails.

Nyungwe offers several picturesque hiking trails that lead visitors through the forest to various waterfalls and stunning viewpoints. The Igishigishigi Trail, for example, provides a beautiful walk to the top of a ridge with breathtaking views of the surrounding landscape.

Rich Flora.

The park boasts a diverse range of plant species, including many rare and endemic plants. Orchids, giant lobelias, and other unique vegetation can be found throughout the forest.

Wildlife Viewing.

In addition to chimpanzees and colobus monkeys, Nyungwe is home to various other mammal species, including golden monkeys, L’Hoest’s monkeys, forest elephants, and numerous species of antelope.

Cultural Encounters.

Nyungwe Forest National Park is located in an area inhabited by the Banyarwanda people, and there are opportunities to experience local culture and interact with the communities surrounding the park.

Conservation and Research.

The park plays a critical role in biodiversity conservation and research efforts. Scientists and conservationists study the flora and fauna of Nyungwe to better understand and protect this unique ecosystem.

Eco-lodges and Accommodation.

There are eco-friendly lodges and accommodation options within and around the park that provide visitors with a comfortable and immersive experience in the heart of nature.

Nyungwe Forest National Park’s extraordinary biodiversity, coupled with its diverse range of activities and attractions, make it a destination that appeals to a wide range of travelers, from nature lovers and adventure seekers to those interested in wildlife conservation and research. The park stands as a testament to Rwanda’s commitment to preserving its natural heritage and promoting sustainable tourism.


Activities to do at Nyungwe Forest National Park.

Nyungwe Forest National Park offers a wide array of activities that cater to various interests and preferences. Whether you are a nature enthusiast, adventure seeker, or cultural explorer, there’s something for everyone to enjoy. Here are some of the exciting activities you can do at Nyungwe Forest National Park:

Chimpanzee Tracking.

Chimpanzee Facts and Behaviors 

Embark on an unforgettable chimpanzee tracking experience and track the habituated chimpanzee groups in their natural habitat. As you follow expert guides, you’ll have the opportunity to observe these intelligent and playful primates up close.




Canopy Walkway Experience.

Canopy Walk

Take a thrilling walk on the Canopy Walkway, a suspension bridge that offers stunning views of the treetop canopy and the forest floor below. It’s an excellent way to witness the forest’s diverse birdlife and spot various monkeys and other wildlife.





Bird Watching.

Birdwatching at Nyungwe NP

Nyungwe Forest is a paradise for birdwatchers, boasting over 310 bird species, including many colorful and rare birds. Join a birdwatching tour and keep an eye out for Albertine Rift endemics like the Ruwenzori Turaco and the Handsome Francolin.





Colobus Monkey Tracking.

Colobus Monkey

Experience the thrill of tracking and observing large troops of Angola colobus monkeys as they swing gracefully through the treetops. These striking black and white monkeys are a unique sight to behold.





Guided Nature Walks and Hiking Trails.

Guided Nature Walks

Explore the forest’s beauty on guided nature walks and hikes. There are several trails of varying difficulty and length that lead to waterfalls, viewpoints, and other scenic spots. The Igishigishigi Trail and the Kamiranzovu Swamp Trail are popular choices.




Waterfall Visits.

Kamiranzovu Water Falls

Discover the park’s impressive waterfalls such as the majestic Kamiranzovu Waterfall and the picturesque Irebero Waterfall. The hikes to these waterfalls offer both adventure and stunning natural beauty.





Accommodation at Nyungwe Forest National Park.

Nyungwe Forest National Park offers various accommodation options to suit different preferences and budgets. The lodges and accommodations in and around the park are designed to provide visitors with a comfortable and immersive experience in the heart of the rainforest. Here are some of the popular accommodation choices at Nyungwe Forest National Park:

Nyungwe Forest Lodge.

This luxury lodge is located within the park and offers stunning views of the forest. It provides spacious and well-appointed rooms, each with a private deck overlooking the lush surroundings. The lodge features amenities such as a restaurant, bar, spa, and outdoor swimming pool.

One & Only Nyungwe House.

Situated on the edge of the forest, One & Only Nyungwe House offers a luxurious and intimate experience. The lodge provides beautifully designed rooms and suites with private decks or terraces, gourmet dining, spa facilities, and guided activities.

 Nyungwe Top View Hill Hotel.

Located on a hilltop near the park, this mid-range hotel offers comfortable rooms with beautiful views of the forest and the surrounding landscapes. It provides basic amenities, a restaurant serving local and international cuisine, and easy access to various activities.

Gisakura Guesthouse.

This budget-friendly guesthouse is conveniently located near the park’s entrance. It offers simple and clean rooms with en-suite bathrooms, a restaurant, and a cozy atmosphere. It’s an excellent choice for travelers seeking a more affordable stay.

Nyungwe Nziza Eco Lodge.

Situated in the nearby Gisakura village, this eco-lodge offers comfortable accommodation with eco-friendly practices. It features charming cottages with modern amenities, a restaurant serving local dishes, and a warm and welcoming ambiance.

Kitabi Eco Center.

Located near the park, this eco-center provides accommodation in well-maintained dormitories or private rooms. It promotes sustainability and community engagement, making it an ideal choice for budget-conscious and environmentally conscious travelers.

Guesthouses and Homestays.

In addition to the above options, there are also guesthouses and Homestays in nearby communities, where visitors can experience local hospitality and immerse themselves in the Banyarwanda culture.

It is essential to book accommodation in advance, especially during peak tourist seasons, as Nyungwe Forest National Park attracts visitors from around the world; The lodges and accommodations in and around the park offer a comfortable and convenient base for exploring the forest and engaging in various activities, making your stay in Nyungwe a memorable and enjoyable one.

Accommodation at Nyungwe
Nyungwe Forest Lodge
Nyungwe Forest Lodge
Nyungwe Forest Lodge

When to Visit Nyungwe Forest National Park.

The best time to visit Nyungwe Forest National Park depends on your preferences and what you want to experience during your trip; Rwanda, including Nyungwe Forest, has a temperate climate due to its high elevation, which means that it is generally mild and enjoyable throughout the year. However, there are distinct seasons that can affect your visit:

Dry Season (June to September).

The dry season is considered the best time to visit Nyungwe Forest National Park. It runs from June to September and offers more comfortable trekking conditions and clearer views. During this time, the chances of encountering rain are lower, making it easier to explore the forest and go on hikes without worrying about mud and slippery trails.

Dry Season (December to February).

Another dry season occurs from December to February. These months are also a good time to visit Nyungwe Forest, with pleasant temperatures and reduced rainfall. The dry season is excellent for birdwatching, as many migratory bird species can be spotted during this time.

Rainy Season (March to May and October to November).

The rainy seasons bring lush greenery to the forest, but they can also result in heavier rainfall and more challenging trekking conditions; March to May and October to November are the wettest months, and it’s worth being prepared for muddy trails and occasional rain showers if you choose to visit during this time; However, the rainy season can offer unique opportunities to experience the forest in its most vibrant state and see baby animals.

Keep in mind that the weather in mountainous areas like Nyungwe Forest can be unpredictable, and rain can occur even during the dry season. Therefore, it’s essential to come prepared with appropriate clothing and gear for all weather conditions.

Overall, Nyungwe Forest National Park is a year-round destination, and the best time to visit depends on your preferences for weather, wildlife viewing, and trekking conditions. No matter when you visit, the park’s breathtaking beauty and diverse wildlife will leave you with unforgettable memories.


Geography and Geology of Nyungwe Forest National Park.


Nyungwe Forest National Park is located in the southwestern part of Rwanda, near the border with Burundi and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC); It lies within the Albertine Rift, which is a branch of the East African Rift, and is part of the larger Albertine Rift montane forests ecoregion. The park’s geographical features contribute to its exceptional biodiversity and unique ecosystem.


The park’s topography is characterized by rugged terrain, hilly landscapes, and deep valleys. Nyungwe Forest is situated at an elevation ranging from approximately 1,600 meters (5,250 feet) to 2,950 meters (9,680 feet) above sea level. The undulating hills and valleys create a varied microclimate that supports a wide range of plant and animal life.

Water Bodies.

Nyungwe Forest is the source of numerous rivers and streams that flow into both the Congo River basin to the west and the Nile River basin to the east. The Congo-Nile Divide runs through the park, and the park’s water resources are essential for local communities and wildlife.

Rwanda’s Watershed.

Nyungwe Forest National Park is considered one of Rwanda’s most critical water catchment areas. It plays a vital role in regulating water flow and maintaining water quality for various regions in Rwanda. Many rivers and streams originate from the park and supply water to numerous communities and agricultural areas downstream.

Geology of Nyungwe Forest NP.

The geological history of Nyungwe Forest is linked to the formation of the Albertine Rift and the broader East African Rift system. The park’s rocks and soils are predominantly composed of volcanic formations and ancient metamorphic rocks.

Volcanic Activity.

The Albertine Rift is characterized by volcanic activity, and Nyungwe Forest lies within this volcanic region. The park is situated on a series of ancient volcanic mountains and plateaus that were formed millions of years ago due to the tectonic movements in the Earth’s crust.


The soils in Nyungwe Forest vary depending on the topography and underlying geology. The hilly areas often have deep, fertile soils, while the valleys may have alluvial soils due to sediment deposits from the rivers.

Ecological Impact.

The geology of Nyungwe Forest plays a significant role in shaping its diverse habitats and supporting a rich variety of plant and animal life; The nutrient-rich soils support a wide range of vegetation types, and the varied topography creates distinct microclimates that foster the park’s exceptional biodiversity.

Overall, the unique geography and geology of Nyungwe Forest National Park contribute to its status as one of the most ecologically diverse and important protected areas in Rwanda and the entire Albertine Rift region.


Getting to Nyungwe Forest National Park.

Getting to Nyungwe Forest National Park is relatively straightforward, and there are several transportation options available. The park is located in the southwestern part of Rwanda, and the nearest major city is Butare (Huye), which is approximately 54 kilometers (34 miles) away. Here are the main ways to reach Nyungwe Forest National Park:

By Air

The closest international airport to Nyungwe Forest is Kigali International Airport (KGL) in Rwanda’s capital city, Kigali. From Kigali, you can either hire a private vehicle or take a scheduled shuttle to Nyungwe Forest, which is about a 5 to 6-hour drive. Many lodges in Nyungwe also offer airport transfers for their guests.

By Road.

From Kigali or other major cities like Butare, you can take a taxi or hire a private car to Nyungwe Forest National Park. The drive from Kigali to Nyungwe takes around 5 to 6 hours, depending on the route and road conditions. There are also shared minibuses and buses that operate between Kigali and Butare, from where you can find local transportation to Nyungwe.

By Organized Tour.

Several tour operators and travel agencies offer organized tours to Nyungwe Forest National Park. These tours often include transportation, accommodation, activities, and a guide, making it a convenient and hassle-free way to visit the park.

By Public Transportation.

While it is possible to use public transportation to reach Nyungwe Forest, it may involve multiple transfers and longer travel times. Shared minibuses and buses operate between major towns and cities, but keep in mind that schedules and availability might vary.

By Charter Flight.

For a more luxurious and time-efficient option, some tour operators offer charter flights to Nyungwe Forest National Park. These flights depart from Kigali and take you directly to nearby airstrips, significantly reducing travel time.

Once you arrive at Nyungwe Forest National Park, you can access various activities and attractions within the park, such as chimpanzee trekking, birdwatching, hiking trails, and the canopy walkway; It’s essential to plan your trip in advance, book accommodation, and arrange for any necessary permits or guided tours, especially for activities like chimpanzee trekking.


Conservation Measures and Challenges at Nyungwe Forest NP.

Conservation Measures 

  • Protected Area Status: Nyungwe Forest National Park was established in 2004 to protect the unique montane rainforest ecosystem and its biodiversity. As a protected area, the park receives legal and institutional support for conservation efforts.
  • Wildlife Monitoring and Research: Conservationists and researchers regularly monitor the park’s wildlife and ecosystems to understand population trends, behavior, and ecological dynamics. This information helps inform conservation strategies.
  • Habituation and Ecotourism: Habituation programs for chimpanzees and other primates allow tourists to observe wildlife without disturbing their natural behaviors. Income generated from ecotourism supports conservation efforts and provides incentives for local communities to protect the park.
  • Community Engagement and Benefits: Engaging local communities in conservation initiatives is crucial for the long-term sustainability of the park. Programs that provide benefits to local communities, such as employment, education, and revenue-sharing, foster positive attitudes towards conservation.
  • Anti-Poaching Measures: Park authorities and rangers work to combat poaching activities and protect wildlife from illegal hunting and trade.
  • Environmental Education: Education programs raise awareness about the importance of biodiversity, sustainable practices, and the role of Nyungwe Forest in the ecosystem. This helps foster a conservation-minded culture among visitors and local communities.
  • Habitat Restoration and Reforestation: Efforts are made to restore degraded areas within the park through reforestation and habitat restoration projects.

Challenges at Nyungwe Forest NP.

  • Habitat Fragmentation: Human activities such as agriculture, logging, and infrastructure development lead to habitat fragmentation, which can isolate wildlife populations and reduce genetic diversity.
  • Illegal Activities: Illegal activities, such as poaching, logging, and encroachment, continue to pose a threat to wildlife and the forest’s integrity.
  • Human-Wildlife Conflict: As the park is surrounded by human settlements, conflicts arise between wildlife and local communities over issues such as crop raiding and livestock predation.
  • Climate Change: Climate change can affect the forest’s ecosystem and biodiversity, potentially leading to shifts in vegetation and wildlife distribution.
  • Limited Resources: Conservation efforts require adequate funding, trained staff, and equipment. Limited resources can hinder effective management and protection.
  • Tourism Impact: While ecotourism provides benefits to conservation efforts, an unsustainable influx of tourists can put stress on the fragile ecosystem and wildlife.
  • Invasive Species: Invasive plant and animal species can threaten native biodiversity and disrupt natural ecosystems.

Addressing these challenges requires a combination of effective law enforcement, community involvement, sustainable tourism practices, and continued research. By working together with local communities and stakeholders, Nyungwe Forest National Park can continue to be a vital sanctuary for biodiversity and a symbol of Rwanda’s commitment to conservation.


What to Pack for Nyungwe Forest NP.

Packing appropriately for a trip to Nyungwe Forest National Park will ensure you have a comfortable and enjoyable experience. Here’s a list of essential items to pack:


  • Lightweight, moisture-wicking shirts and pants for warm days and to protect against insects.
  • Long-sleeved shirts and long pants for cooler evenings and protection from the sun.
  • A light rain jacket or poncho, as rain showers can occur even during the dry season.
  • Sturdy and comfortable walking shoes or hiking boots for forest treks.
  • Sandals or flip-flops for relaxation at the lodge or around camp.
  • A wide-brimmed hat or cap for sun protection.

Other Requirements

Layers for Temperature Variation: Evenings and mornings can be chilly, especially at higher elevations. Pack layers like a light sweater or fleece jacket for warmth.

Insect Repellent: Mosquitoes and other insects are common in the forest, so a good-quality insect repellent with DEET is essential.

Binoculars and Camera: Nyungwe Forest is a paradise for birdwatchers and wildlife enthusiasts. Bring binoculars to spot birds and a camera to capture the forest’s beauty.

Daypack: A small daypack to carry essentials like water, snacks, camera gear, and a rain jacket during hikes and walks.

Water Bottle: Carry a refillable water bottle to stay hydrated during activities. Some lodges provide filtered water for refills.

Personal Medications: Bring any personal medications you may need, as well as a basic first aid kit with essentials like band-aids and pain relievers.

Sunscreen and Sunglasses: Protect your skin and eyes from the strong African sun with sunscreen and sunglasses.

Other Requirements

Travel Documents: Don’t forget to bring your passport, visas (if required), travel insurance, and any necessary permits for activities like chimpanzee trekking.

Cash and Credit Card: Some lodges and local vendors may not accept credit cards, so it’s good to have some cash in Rwandan Francs.

Torch/Flashlight: A small torch or flashlight can be handy for walking around at night, as some areas may have limited lighting.

Personal Toiletries and Towel: Bring your personal toiletries, as well as a quick-dry towel for some lodges that may not provide them.

Travel Adapter: Rwanda uses Type C and J power outlets, so bring a travel adapter if necessary.

Notebook and Pen: Keep a journal of your experiences and wildlife sightings or jot down any notes during guided walks.

Snacks: Pack some snacks like energy bars or nuts to keep you energized during activities.

Remember to pack light and efficiently, as you might need to carry your belongings during walks and treks. Check the weather forecast before your trip to ensure you pack accordingly for the season you’ll be visiting.


Remarks on Nyungwe Forest National Park.

Nyungwe Forest National Park

Nyungwe Forest National Park is a true gem of Africa, offering a captivating blend of biodiversity, natural beauty, and adventure. Its unique rainforest ecosystem, diverse wildlife, and stunning landscapes make it a destination like no other. As Rwanda’s premier protected area, it stands as a testament to the country’s commitment to preserving its natural heritage for future generations to cherish and enjoy.https://www.arcadiasafaris.com/contact/