Mountain Elgon National Park

Mountain Elgon National Park

Mountain Elgon National Park is a captivating protected area located in Eastern Uganda, straddling the border with Kenya. It was established in 1992 and covers an expansive area of approximately 1,121 square kilometers (433 square miles). The park is named after Mount Elgon, an ancient extinct volcano that dominates the landscape and serves as the central attraction of the area. With its diverse range of ecosystems and rich biodiversity, Mountain Elgon National Park has earned recognition as one of Uganda’s most unique and biologically diverse destinations.

It is found in the northeast of Lake Victoria. The park covers an area of 1279 square meters and is bisected by the boarder of Kenya and Uganda. The Ugandan part covers 1110km2 while the Kenyan part covers 169km2.

The Sabiny and the Bagisu are two tribes that reside in Mount Elgon National Park. The Bagisu speak Lugisu, a Lumasaba dialect, and the Sabiny speak Sebei, a Nilotic language.

The Bagisu refer to the mountain as Mount Elgon because they think it represents their founding father, Masaba. Both tribes engage on subsistence agriculture.

Key Features in Mountain Elgon National Park.

Geology and Landscape:

At the heart of the park stands Mount Elgon, which is an ancient volcano that once stood taller than Kilimanjaro before significant erosion over time reduced its height? The mountain is an immense solitary volcanic plug, its largest base measuring about 80 kilometers in diameter. It has several impressive peaks, including Wagagai at 4,321 meters (14,177 feet) above sea level, making it the fourth-highest mountain in East Africa. The mountain’s slopes are characterized by deep valleys, gorges, caves, cliffs, and waterfalls, forming a picturesque and dramatic landscape.

Mount Elgon:

The park’s central feature is Mount Elgon, an extinct volcano and the fourth-highest mountain in East Africa. It offers a range of hiking and trekking opportunities for both experienced climbers and casual hikers. The peak, known as Wagagai, reaches an altitude of 4,321 meters (14,177 feet).

Caldera and Caves:

The mountain’s extinct volcano has one of the world’s largest calderas, with a diameter of approximately 8 kilometers. The caldera has various hot springs, caves, and gorges, which add to the park’s geological significance and charm.

Endangered Species:

Mountain Elgon National Park is a habitat for numerous plant and animal species, some of which are listed as endangered or rare. The park is famous for its various species of giant lobelias and groundsel plants that grow at high altitudes.


The park is a birdwatcher’s paradise, with over 300 bird species recorded. You can find various unique and rare bird species, such as the Jackson’s Francolin, Hartlaub’s Turaco, and the Black Collared Apalis.


Though not as abundant in big game as some other East African parks, Mountain Elgon still offers a chance to spot wildlife such as elephants, buffalo, duikers, and primates like colobus monkeys and blue monkeys.

Sipi Falls:

Located on the foothills of Mount Elgon, Sipi Falls is a series of three beautiful waterfalls that cascade down the slopes. The falls offer fantastic views and are a popular spot for hiking and photography.

Cultural Encounters:

The surrounding areas of Mountain Elgon National Park are inhabited by the Bagisu people. Visitors can experience their traditional way of life, including unique cultural practices like circumcision ceremonies and storytelling.

Hiking Trails:

There are several hiking trails catering to various fitness levels. The most popular include the Sasa River route and the Piswa trail, both leading to the Wagagai peak.

Camping and Lodging:

The park provides camping facilities, and there are also lodges and guesthouses available for visitors who prefer more comfortable accommodations.


Mountain Elgon National Park’s climate varies with altitude. The lower slopes enjoy a relatively warm climate, while higher elevations experience cooler temperatures. The park receives a significant amount of rainfall throughout the year, and the wetter seasons occur between March to May and September to November. It is recommended to plan visits during the dry seasons to avoid challenges posed by slippery trails and difficult conditions.

Vegetation and Wildlife:

The national park is renowned for its diverse range of vegetation zones, which are largely influenced by altitude and rainfall. As you ascend the slopes of Mount Elgon, you encounter distinct vegetation belts, including montane forest, bamboo forest, heathland, and moorland. The higher elevations are characterized by unique Afro-alpine vegetation, with giant lobelias and groundsels dotting the landscape.

Mountain Elgon National Park is a haven for a variety of wildlife species. The forests are home to several primate species, such as the black-and-white colobus monkey, blue monkey, and vervet monkey. The park also hosts over 300 bird species, including the endangered lammergeier and the Jackson’s francolin.

However, the most prominent wildlife species in the park are the elephants, which often roam in the lower plains and forested areas. Other notable mammals include buffalo, antelope species like the duiker and bushbuck, and spotted hyenas. While not as diverse as some of Uganda’s other national parks, Mountain Elgon National Park offers a unique and more tranquil wildlife experience.

Activities to do in Mountain Elgon National Park

Rock Climbing.

This takes place outside mount Elgon national park at Sipi falls, there are several routes that require us with level of rock scaling techniques. The required equipment can be hiked from the sipi falls tourist guide association. The hardest route measures 35meter climb while the easiest is 5 meter. The area is rewarding with great viewing of the falls and the Karamoja plains.

Mountain Elgon National Park

The Sasa Trek is the shortest but most difficult trail, taking four days to complete. This is the traditional path to Wagagai, the 4,321-meter peak of Mount Elgon. At a height of 1,250 meters, the trail’s beginning is near the town of Budadiri in Uganda’s Eastern Region. The first day comprises a challenging 1,650m elevation. The trail next enters a forest, leading to the ladder-climbable Mudangi Cliffs. The next activity is a 2.5-hour stroll in a lovely bamboo forest.

Rock Climbing. The Piswa Trail is a longer, less taxing option to the Sasa Trail. In 7 days, you’ll travel around 49 kilometers. At a height of 2,190 meters, the trail’s beginning is at the Kapkwata settlement on the mountain’s northern flank. The trail is renowned for its breathtaking vistas of Kenya’s Kapenguria and Nandi Hills and Uganda’s Karamoja Plains.

The Sipi Trek is the longest trail, stretching 56 kilometers over four to six days. A few kilometers from Sipi Falls, at the Kapkwai Forest Exploration Centre, the trail begins. The portion through Tatum Cave, known for its prehistoric cave paintings, is one of its highlights.

Day Hikes: The Forest Exploration Center features three shorter paths that range in length from 3 to 7 kilometers. These pathways are ideal for novice hikers and tourists who wish to enjoy Mount Elgon’s breathtaking beauty and abundant animals quickly.

Bird Watching.

This refers to the practice of observing birds in their natural environment as a hobby. This is one of the activities in Mount Elgon national park. Mountain Elgon is also a great place for travelers who are bird lovers which gives an excellent birding opportunity to exist around the kapkwai forest exploration center. In regard around the secondary forest and thick shrub along the trail to cheptui falls these are the best bird spotting areas and bird species that are African goshawk, white chinned perinea to mention but a few.

Mountain Elgon National ParkOver 300 different bird species can be found in Mount Elgon National Park, which has been designated as an Important Bird Area.

Avian enthusiasts should keep an eye out for endangered species like the lammergeier. Additionally, keep an eye out for the African goshawk, the cinnamon-chested bee eater, and the African blue fly-catcher. Bird Watching is commonly done in the following ways in Mountain Elgon;

Walks to the falls: While on your way to the bottom of all three levels of waterfalls, you will experience a number of bird species.

Forest walks: While on your way hiking the mountain Elgon till the its summit Wagagai, You will hear and see more Birds

Coffee Visits: While on your way through the coffee plantations in the Mountain Elgon National Park, you will experience a great bird time

Birds include;  African Blue Fly-catcher, the African Goshawk, Chubb’s Cisticola, Tacazze, White-chinned Prinia, Chinspot Batis, Mackinnon’s Fiscal, Dohertys and Luhders Bush-shrikes etc.

Sport Fishing.

Fishing at Mountain Elgon National Park

At the Sipi falls there is an opportunity for spot fishing which will keep you busy as some of the local join you. It provides a good challenge to anyone interested in the rainbow trout. Remember to your own equipment and get a permit from Sipi River Lodge





Sipi Falls Hiking.

Mountain Elgon National Park

The Mountain Rivers plunge over massive cliffs on the northern and western side of mountain Elgon forming some of the most beautiful falls. Among these are three beautiful falls together known as the Sipi falls. These are outside the park and a hike to all the three is a fulfilling experience.




Mountain Biking.

Kapchorwa and the entire mountain Elgon region provide great mountain biking routes that will keep your adrenaline high as you transverse the area. For one who would like to do this activity, it normally starts from the Sipi trading Centre to Chema hill and that is in Kapchorwa.

Cycling | Biking Tours in Uganda - Arcadia Safaris

The Uganda Wildlife Authority unveiled mountain bike routes in 2012. In order to hire bicycles, go to Sipi River Lodge. From Sipi Trading Centre, located at an elevation of 1,775 meters, a one and a half-hour trail leads to Chema Hill in Kapchorwa. Why Mount Elgon? The area is rugged with rocks, creek and rain washout, and many steep declines. It is an adventure to navigate. There are former logging roads and gravel ones in the pristine forest valley. Sparkling streams and a variation in vegetation zones contribute to the beauty of Mount Elgon. You are assured of stunning views of the African wilderness.


Nature and hiking Walk. (Wagagai Summit hiking).

Nature Walks at Elgon

Nature and hiking walks are trails located both within   the park and outside the park. This activity involves walking through mountain Elgon vegetation. At Sipi falls, local guides from the community take you in the walks that last for over   two hours to even a whole day walking where you will get to see the stunning views of the Karamojong region and Sebei region. There is full hike through the Budadiri to Mudange cliffs, which is known as the walls of death. These cliffs are located in the tropical forest at the boundary of natural parks.

One of Mount Elgon’s main draws is its network of hiking trails. Unlike other climbs in East Africa, Mount Elgon’s routes are open all year long and don’t call for specialized climbing gear. Compared to other hiking paths in East Africa, Mount Elgon’s hiking trails are less crowded, allowing you to fully appreciate the area’s breathtaking beauty.

There are three primary hiking trails, and they range in length and difficulty.

Accommodation at Mountain Elgon National Park.

Mountain Elgon National Park offers a variety of accommodation options to suit different preferences and budgets. Here are some of the accommodation choices available within or near the park:

UWA Bandas:

These are basic self-contained cabins managed by the Uganda Wildlife Authority (UWA). They offer a budget-friendly option for visitors who want a simple place to stay while enjoying the park’s attractions. Facilities are basic, but they provide a comfortable place to rest.

Sipi River Lodge:

Located just outside the park, Sipi River Lodge offers comfortable accommodation in cottages with stunning views of the Sipi Falls and the surrounding landscapes. The lodge provides a mix of luxury and adventure, making it an attractive option for travelers seeking both comfort and natural beauty.

Noah’s Ark Hotel & Resort:

Situated in Mbale town, which is a gateway to the park, Noah’s Ark Hotel offers a range of accommodation options, from standard rooms to more luxurious suites. It’s a convenient choice for travelers who want to explore the park while having access to town amenities.

Mbale Resort Hotel:

Another option in Mbale, Mbale Resort Hotel offers comfortable rooms, modern amenities, and a variety of services to ensure a pleasant stay. It’s suitable for travelers who want a bit more luxury and convenience.


Some designated areas within the park allow camping. This option is ideal for adventurous travelers who want to immerse themselves in nature. Keep in mind that facilities might be basic, so come prepared.

Local Guesthouses:

In nearby towns like Kapchorwa and Mbale, you can find local guesthouses that provide affordable lodging. While these might not offer luxurious amenities, they offer a chance to experience the local culture and hospitality.


For a more authentic experience, consider staying with local families in nearby communities. This allows you to learn about their way of life, traditions, and cuisine.

When planning your stay, it’s recommended to make reservations in advance, especially during peak tourist seasons. Keep in mind that the accommodation options in and around the park might vary in terms of amenities, services, and comfort levels. Additionally, verify the latest information regarding facilities and services, as conditions can change over time.

Whether you prefer a rustic experience close to nature or a more comfortable stay with modern conveniences, Mountain Elgon National Park offers various accommodation choices to enhance your overall visit to this unique destination.

Mbale Resort Hotel

Mbale Resort Hotel

Mbale Resort Hotel – Mountain Elgon National Park

Mbale Resort Hotel - Health Club

The Hotel Health Club – Mountain Elgon National Park

When to Visit Mountain Elgon National Park.

The best time to visit Mountain Elgon National Park depends on your preferences, the activities you wish to engage in, and the weather conditions. Here are the two main seasons to consider when planning your visit:

Dry Season (June to August, December to February):

This is generally considered the best time to visit Mountain Elgon National Park. During the dry season, the weather is relatively stable, with lower chances of rain, making it ideal for outdoor activities like hiking, trekking, bird watching, and wildlife viewing. The trails are more accessible and the skies are clearer, providing better visibility of the stunning landscapes and viewpoints.

Wet Season (March to May, September to November):

The wet season brings rain to the region, which can sometimes make hiking trails muddy and slippery. However, this time of year is when the park’s vegetation is lush and vibrant, and some animal species might be more active. It’s worth noting that some activities might be more challenging during the wet season due to weather conditions, but the park can still be rewarding for those interested in the lush greenery and a quieter experience.

If you’re specifically interested in bird watching, the wet season can be a great time as many migratory bird species are present during this period. The waterfalls, such as Sipi Falls, might also be more impressive with higher water flow.

It’s important to keep in mind that the mountain’s high altitude can bring cooler temperatures year-round, especially in the evenings and early mornings. Therefore, it’s advisable to pack warm clothing regardless of the season.

Also, consider the factors of crowd levels and accommodation availability when planning your visit. The dry season tends to be more popular and might see more visitors, so booking accommodations in advance is recommended.

Before your trip, it’s a good idea to check the weather forecast and local conditions, and to stay updated on any changes that might affect your plans.

Geography and Geology of Mountain Elgon National Park.

The geography and geology of Mountain Elgon National Park are fascinating and contribute to the park’s unique landscape and ecosystems. Here’s an overview of the geography and geology of the park:


Mountain Elgon National Park is located on the border between Uganda and Kenya in East Africa. It covers an area of approximately 1,279 square kilometers (494 square miles). The park’s terrain is characterized by rugged landscapes, valleys, and high-altitude areas. The park encompasses the volcanic Mount Elgon, which is an extinct volcano that has been eroded over millions of years.


Mount Elgon is the oldest and largest solitary volcano in East Africa. It was formed over 24 million years ago through volcanic activity. The mountain is a stratovolcano, meaning it’s made up of alternating layers of lava, ash, and other volcanic materials. However, much of its original volcanic cone has been eroded away, leaving behind a series of calderas, valleys, and peaks.

One of the most notable features of Mount Elgon’s geology is its multiple calderas. These calderas are large volcanic craters that formed through the collapse of the volcano’s summit due to massive eruptions. The largest of these calderas, known as the Wagagai Caldera, is over six kilometers in diameter. Within this caldera lies the highest point of Mount Elgon, Wagagai Peak, which reaches an elevation of 4,321 meters (14,177 feet) above sea level.

Vegetation Zones:

The diverse geology of Mount Elgon has contributed to the formation of different vegetation zones on the mountain. These zones are influenced by altitude and climate, creating a range of ecosystems:

  • Montane Forest: At lower elevations, the mountain is covered in dense montane forests. These forests are home to various tree species and support a range of wildlife.
  • Bamboo Zone: As you ascend, the forest gives way to bamboo forests, which are characteristic of the mid-altitude region of the mountain.
  • Heath and Moorland: Further up, the vegetation changes to heath and moorland. This high-altitude zone is home to unique plants like giant lobelias and groundsels, which are adapted to the cold conditions.
  • Alpine Zone: The highest parts of the mountain are characterized by alpine zones, where the vegetation becomes sparse due to the extreme conditions.

Caves and Waterfalls:

The park’s geology also includes intriguing caves and waterfalls. Kitum Cave is famous for its role in the “elephants’ caves” phenomenon, where elephants and other animals visit the cave to consume mineral-rich deposits on the walls. The park also boasts stunning waterfalls, with Sipi Falls being one of the most well-known, attracting visitors with its three tiers and picturesque setting.

Overall, the unique geology of Mountain Elgon National Park, characterized by its calderas, diverse vegetation zones, caves, and waterfalls, makes it a captivating destination for those interested in the natural world and geological history.

Getting to Mountain Elgon NP

Getting to Mountain Elgon National Park involves traveling to the border region of Uganda and Kenya. The park can be accessed from both countries, and the transportation options vary depending on your starting point. Here’s a general guide on how to get to Mountain Elgon National Park:

From Uganda:

Entebbe International Airport (EBB) to Mbale:

  • Fly into Entebbe International Airport, the main international gateway to Uganda.
  • From Entebbe, you can take a domestic flight or travel by road to Mbale, which serves as a gateway town to Mountain Elgon National Park. The distance between Entebbe and Mbale is approximately 300 kilometers, and the journey by road takes around 4-5 hours.

Mbale to the Park:

  • From Mbale, it’s possible to arrange transportation to the park entrance. You can use a private vehicle, hire a taxi, or use public transportation.

From Kenya:

Jomo Kenyatta International Airport (NBO) to Kitale:

  • Fly into Jomo Kenyatta International Airport in Nairobi, the capital of Kenya.
  • From Nairobi, you can take a domestic flight or travel by road to Kitale, a town near the Kenyan side of Mountain Elgon National Park. The distance between Nairobi and Kitale is approximately 380 kilometers, and the road journey takes around 6-7 hours.

Kitale to the Park:

  • From Kitale, you can arrange transportation to the Kenyan side of the park. Similar to the Ugandan side, you can use private vehicles, taxis, or public transportation.

Crossing the Border:

If you’re planning to visit both the Ugandan and Kenyan sides of the park, keep in mind that you’ll need to cross the border between the two countries. This might involve going through immigration and customs processes, so make sure to have your necessary travel documents, such as passports and visas, in order.

Note: Road conditions can vary, especially in more remote areas, so it’s a good idea to plan your transportation in advance and consider hiring a local driver who knows the routes well. Also, check for any travel advisories or road conditions before you embark on your journey.

Whether you’re traveling from Uganda or Kenya, the journey to Mountain Elgon National Park can be an adventure in itself, offering you the opportunity to experience the landscapes and cultures of the region as you make your way to this captivating destination.

Conservation Measures and Challenges at the Mt. Elgon NP

Conservation measures and challenges are integral aspects of managing protected areas like Mountain Elgon National Park. Efforts to protect the park’s unique ecosystems and biodiversity are ongoing, but there are also various challenges that need to be addressed. Here’s an overview:

Conservation Measures:

  • Wildlife Protection: The Park’s rangers and authorities work to protect the wildlife within the park from poaching and illegal hunting. Efforts are made to monitor and deter any illegal activities that could threaten the park’s animal populations.
  • Habitat Preservation: Conservationists focus on preserving the park’s diverse habitats, including montane forests, bamboo zones, and alpine areas. This involves initiatives to prevent habitat destruction and degradation through illegal logging, farming, and encroachment.
  • Community Engagement: Involving local communities in conservation efforts is crucial. Partnerships are formed to promote sustainable land use practices that benefit both local livelihoods and the park’s ecosystem.
  • Anti-Poaching Efforts: Various anti-poaching measures are implemented, including increased patrolling, the use of technology for surveillance, and community-based programs to discourage poaching.
  • Environmental Education: Programs aimed at educating local communities, schoolchildren, and visitors about the importance of conservation and sustainable practices are vital for building a sense of stewardship.
  • Research and Monitoring: Ongoing research helps scientists better understand the park’s ecosystem dynamics, allowing for informed conservation decisions. Regular monitoring of wildlife populations, vegetation, and other factors helps track changes and threats.


  • Illegal Activities: Poaching, illegal logging, and encroachment by local communities remain significant challenges. These activities can degrade habitats, disrupt ecosystems, and threaten wildlife.
  • Human-Wildlife Conflict: As the human population around the park grows, conflicts between wildlife and communities can arise, especially when animals damage crops or property.
  • Limited Resources: Insufficient funding and resources can hinder effective management and conservation efforts. Adequate funding is needed for patrols, anti-poaching measures, and community engagement programs.
  • Climate Change: Changes in climate patterns can impact the park’s ecosystems, altering the distribution of plant and animal species and affecting water availability.
  • Invasive Species: Invasive plant species can outcompete native vegetation, disrupting natural processes and habitats.
  • Lack of Awareness: Public awareness about the importance of conservation and responsible tourism may be lacking, leading to behaviors that can harm the environment.
  • Political Instability: Political instability in the region can sometimes affect the park’s management and security, making consistent conservation efforts challenging.
  • Infrastructure Development: Development projects, such as roads and tourism facilities, if not properly planned, can have negative impacts on the park’s ecosystems.

Addressing these challenges requires a multi-faceted approach involving government agencies, local communities, NGOs, and international partners. By combining conservation efforts with sustainable development and involving local stakeholders, Mountain Elgon National Park can continue to thrive as a vital part of the region’s natural heritage.

What to Pack for Mountain Elgon NP.

Packing for a trip to Mountain Elgon National Park requires careful consideration due to the varying altitudes, potential weather changes, and outdoor activities you might engage in. Here’s a comprehensive packing list to ensure you’re well-prepared for your visit:


  • Layered Clothing: Due to varying temperatures at different altitudes, pack lightweight, moisture-wicking base layers, insulating mid-layers, and a waterproof outer layer.
  • Warm Jacket or Fleece: Evenings and early mornings can be chilly, especially at higher altitudes.
  • Rain Jacket or Poncho: Prepare for possible rain showers, especially during the wet season.
  • Sturdy Hiking Boots: Comfortable, waterproof, and supportive footwear is essential for trekking.
  • Hiking Pants: Lightweight and quick-drying pants are ideal for hiking and outdoor activities.
  • Long-sleeved Shirts: Protect yourself from the sun and insects.
  • Hat or Cap: Shield yourself from the sun.
  • Gloves: Especially useful during chilly mornings or at higher altitudes.
  • Socks: Bring moisture-wicking, comfortable socks suitable for hiking.
  • Swimwear: If you plan to swim or visit waterfalls.


  • Sunglasses: Protect your eyes from intense sunlight.
  • Sunscreen: Essential for sun protection, even on cloudy days.
  • Insect Repellent: Especially important for hikes and outdoor activities.
  • Daypack: Carry essentials like water, snacks, a first aid kit, and a camera.
  • Reusable Water Bottle: Stay hydrated during your activities.
  • Headlamp or Flashlight: Useful for night activities and in case of power outages.


  • Personal Medications: Carry any prescription medications and a basic first aid kit.
  • Travel Adapter: Check the plug types used in the region and bring an appropriate adapter.
  • Camera: Capture the stunning landscapes and wildlife.
  • Binoculars: Enhance your wildlife and bird watching experiences.
  • Travel Documents: Passport, visa (if applicable), travel insurance, and any required permits.

Optional Items:

  • Walking Stick: Useful for trekking, especially on uneven terrain.
  • Trekking Poles: Provide additional support during hikes.
  • Guidebooks: Learn more about the park’s flora, fauna, and history.
  • Notebook and Pen: Journal your experiences or jot down observations.

Remember that packing light and efficiently will make your exploration more comfortable. Be mindful of the weight limits for flights and trekking requirements. Check the weather forecast before your trip to pack accordingly. Lastly, respect the park’s guidelines and responsible travel practices to ensure you leave minimal impact on the environment.

Remarks on Mountain Elgon National Park.

Sipi Falls

Mountain Elgon National Park is a captivating destination offering a blend of natural beauty, biodiversity, adventure, and cultural experiences. Its diverse landscapes, unique flora and fauna, and the interactions with local communities make it a must-visit location for those seeking an immersive and rewarding East African wilderness experience.