Lake Manyara National Park

Lake Manyara National Park

Lake Manyara National Park is a renowned wildlife reserve located in northern Tanzania, East Africa. Spanning an area of approximately 330 square kilometers (127 square miles), the park is situated at the base of the Great Rift Valley, nestled between the Ngorongoro Crater and Tarangire National Park. It was established in 1960 and officially opened to the public in 1967. Lake Manyara National Park is managed by the Tanzania National Parks Authority (TANAPA) and is a part of the larger Manyara-Rift Valley ecosystem.

Ecological Diversity:

The park’s most prominent feature is the shallow, alkaline Lake Manyara, which covers about two-thirds of its total area during the wet season. The lake acts as a magnet for diverse wildlife, making it an essential habitat for various animal and bird species. The park’s landscape is exceptionally diverse, incorporating lush groundwater forest, acacia woodlands, grassy floodplains, and the impressive escarpment of the Great Rift Valley. This mix of ecosystems supports an array of flora and fauna, making Lake Manyara National Park a remarkable biodiversity hotspot.


Lake Manyara National Park is characterized by a variety of vegetation types. The groundwater forest, found near the shores of the lake, is home to dense vegetation, including mahogany, fig, and sausage trees. As you move away from the lake, the terrain transitions into acacia woodlands, dotted with umbrella thorn acacias and yellow fever trees. The park also features open grasslands, swamps, and rocky escarpments that add to its ecological richness.


Despite its relatively small size compared to other Tanzanian parks, Lake Manyara National Park boasts an abundance of wildlife. The park is well-known for its diverse birdlife, with over 400 bird species recorded, including pelicans, flamingos, storks, hornbills, and various raptors. The alkaline waters of the lake attract large flocks of flamingos, creating stunning pink displays during certain times of the year.

In addition to the impressive birdlife, Lake Manyara is home to a wide variety of mammals. Visitors have the chance to encounter elephants, buffalos, wildebeests, giraffes, zebras, and impalas, among others. The park is also famous for its tree-climbing lions, a unique behavior observed in certain prides.

Conservation Efforts:

Lake Manyara National Park plays a crucial role in the conservation of Tanzania’s biodiversity. TANAPA and other conservation organizations work diligently to protect the park’s natural resources and wildlife habitats. Efforts are made to balance tourism activities with preservation initiatives to ensure sustainable ecotourism practices.


Lake Manyara National Park is a popular destination for both domestic and international tourists. Its proximity to other renowned safari destinations, such as Serengeti National Park and Ngorongoro Crater, makes it a favored stop on the northern safari circuit of Tanzania.

Visitors can explore the park through game drives, walking safaris, and birdwatching excursions. There are several viewpoints along the Great Rift Valley escarpment that offer breathtaking vistas of the park and the distant lake. The hot springs at the park’s southern end are also a fascinating attraction.


Key Features and Attractions at Lake Manyara National Park.

Lake Manyara National Park is a gem among Tanzania’s wildlife reserves, offering a plethora of key features and attractions that make it a must-visit destination for nature and wildlife enthusiasts. Here are some of the prominent features and attractions that make Lake Manyara National Park so special:

Lake Manyara:

The park takes its name from Lake Manyara, a shallow alkaline lake that covers a significant portion of its area during the wet season. The lake’s fluctuating water levels create a dynamic environment, attracting a vast number of waterbirds, including flamingos, pelicans, storks, and various other migratory species. The sight of flocks of pink flamingos wading in the shallow waters is truly breathtaking.

Tree-Climbing Lions:

Lake Manyara National Park is famous for its tree-climbing lions. This unique behavior is observed in certain prides within the park. The lions are often found lounging on the branches of acacia trees, providing visitors with a rare and captivating sight not commonly seen in other African safari destinations.


With over 400 recorded bird species, Lake Manyara National Park is a haven for birdwatchers. From waterbirds on the lake’s shores to various raptors soaring high above, bird enthusiasts can spot an incredible diversity of feathered creatures. The park is considered one of the best places in Tanzania for birdwatching.

Diverse Wildlife.

Despite its relatively small size, Lake Manyara National Park is home to a wide variety of wildlife. Visitors can expect to see elephants, buffalos, giraffes, zebras, wildebeests, impalas, and warthogs, among others. The park’s diverse ecosystems provide ample food and water sources for these animals, ensuring rewarding wildlife sightings throughout the year.

Groundwater Forest:

The shores of Lake Manyara are lined with a lush groundwater forest. This dense forest is home to a variety of tree species, including mahogany, fig, and sausage trees. Visitors can explore this area on foot, accompanied by knowledgeable guides, to observe some of the park’s smaller inhabitants, such as monkeys, baboons, and colorful bird species.

Great Rift Valley Escarpment:

Lake Manyara National Park is situated at the base of the Great Rift Valley, and the park’s western boundary is marked by an impressive escarpment. There are several viewpoints along the escarpment that offer stunning panoramas of the park and the distant lake, providing excellent photo opportunities.

Hot Springs:

At the southern end of the park, visitors can find the hot springs, which are believed to have therapeutic properties. The geothermal activity in this area creates a unique habitat for various flora and fauna, making it an interesting spot to visit during a safari.

Cultural Encounters:

Lake Manyara National Park is surrounded by local Maasai communities. Some tour operators offer cultural excursions, allowing visitors to interact with the Maasai people and learn about their traditional way of life, customs, and crafts.

Walking Safaris:

In addition to the traditional game drives, Lake Manyara National Park also offers guided walking safaris. Walking safaris provide a more intimate and immersive experience, allowing visitors to explore the park’s flora, insects, and smaller wildlife up close.

Overall, Lake Manyara National Park’s diverse landscape, abundant wildlife, and unique attractions make it an unforgettable destination for safari enthusiasts and nature lovers seeking an authentic African wildlife experience.


Activities to do at Lake Manyara National Park

Lake Manyara National Park offers a range of activities that cater to different interests and preferences. Whether you are a wildlife enthusiast, a birdwatcher, or someone who appreciates the beauty of nature, there are plenty of activities to enjoy at the park. Here are some of the top activities to do at Lake Manyara National Park:

Game Drives:

Game drives are the most popular activity in the park and provide an excellent opportunity to spot a wide variety of wildlife. Accompanied by experienced guides, visitors can explore the park’s different habitats, including the lake’s shores, woodlands, and grassy plains. Expect to see elephants, buffalos, giraffes, zebras, wildebeests, lions, and numerous bird species during your game drive.


With its diverse birdlife, Lake Manyara National Park is a paradise for birdwatchers. The lake attracts large flocks of flamingos, as well as pelicans, storks, herons, and many other waterbirds. The groundwater forest is home to a variety of colorful forest birds, making it a fantastic spot for birdwatching enthusiasts.

Walking Safaris:

Embark on a guided walking safari to explore the park on foot. Walking safaris offer a more intimate experience, allowing you to observe the smaller creatures, plants, and insects up close. It’s a great way to appreciate the finer details of the park’s ecosystem and gain a deeper understanding of the natural world.

Picnicking and Relaxing:

Lake Manyara National Park has designated picnic sites where visitors can take a break from game drives and enjoy a packed lunch surrounded by nature. The serene ambiance of the park provides a perfect setting for relaxation and unwinding amidst the beautiful scenery.

Cultural Tours:

Some tour operators offer cultural tours that allow visitors to interact with the local Maasai communities living around the park. These tours offer insights into the Maasai way of life, their traditional practices, and unique crafts. It’s a chance to experience the rich cultural heritage of the region.

Scenic Viewpoints:

Visit the viewpoints along the Great Rift Valley escarpment for breathtaking panoramic views of the park and Lake Manyara. The viewpoints offer incredible photo opportunities, especially during sunrise and sunset when the landscape is bathed in golden hues.

Night Game Drives:

Night game drives, if permitted in the park, offer a different perspective of the wildlife. With the aid of spotlights, you may spot nocturnal animals like hyenas, porcupines, and bushbabies. It’s a thrilling experience to see the park come alive after dark.

Photography Safaris:

Lake Manyara National Park’s diverse landscapes and abundant wildlife make it an excellent destination for photography safaris. Whether you are a professional photographer or a hobbyist, you’ll have plenty of opportunities to capture stunning images of wildlife and natural scenery.

Hot Springs Exploration:

Visit the hot springs at the southern end of the park, where you can witness the unique geothermal features and the fascinating ecosystem that thrives in this area.

Remember that all activities within the park are conducted under the guidance of experienced guides to ensure safety and respect for the wildlife and environment. Each activity offers a unique experience, and combining them will give you a comprehensive and unforgettable adventure in Lake Manyara National Park.


Accommodation at Lake Manyara NP.

Lake Manyara National Park offers various accommodation options, ranging from luxury lodges to tented camps and budget-friendly campsites. The accommodations within or near the park cater to different preferences and budgets, providing visitors with a comfortable and immersive safari experience. Here are some of the common types of accommodation available at Lake Manyara National Park:

Luxury Lodges:

Luxury lodges provide the highest level of comfort and amenities. These lodges typically feature spacious and well-appointed rooms or suites with ensuite bathrooms. They often have private verandas or balconies offering stunning views of the park’s landscapes. Luxury lodges may include swimming pools, spa facilities, gourmet restaurants, and other leisure activities, making them ideal for travelers seeking a more indulgent and luxurious stay.

Tented Camps:

Tented camps offer a blend of traditional safari experience and modern comfort. These camps consist of large, walk-in tents with comfortable beds and en-suite bathroom facilities. Some tented camps are semi-permanent, allowing for a more eco-friendly approach to accommodation. Staying in a tented camp allows guests to be close to nature while still enjoying essential amenities such as hot water and comfortable bedding.

Mid-Range Lodges and Camps:

Mid-range lodges and camps strike a balance between comfort and affordability. These accommodations offer well-furnished rooms or tents with en-suite bathrooms. While they may not have all the luxurious features of high-end lodges, they provide a comfortable stay with essential amenities, making them an excellent option for budget-conscious travelers.

Public Campsites:

For more adventurous travelers or those on a tight budget, public campsites within the park are available. These campsites typically have basic facilities such as shared bathrooms and simple cooking areas. Camping in the park allows visitors to immerse themselves in the sounds of nature and enjoy the true essence of a safari experience.

Private Camps:

Some tour operators offer exclusive private camps within or near the park. Private camps provide personalized service and a more intimate safari experience. These camps may be set up in remote areas, offering a secluded and authentic wilderness encounter.

Lodges outside the Park:

There are also lodging options located just outside the park’s boundaries. Staying in lodges outside the park may offer a more tranquil atmosphere away from the tourist crowds. These lodges often provide shuttle services to and from the park for game drives and other activities.

When planning your stay at Lake Manyara National Park, consider the location, level of comfort, and budget that best suits your preferences. It’s essential to book accommodations well in advance, especially during peak tourist seasons, to secure your preferred choice of lodging and ensure a smooth and enjoyable safari experience in this remarkable Tanzanian national park.


When to Visit Lake Manyara NP.

The best time to visit Lake Manyara National Park depends on your preferences and what you want to experience during your safari. Lake Manyara has something unique to offer during different seasons, and each time of the year has its advantages and considerations. Here are the main factors to consider for each season:

Dry Season (June to October):

The dry season is the most popular time to visit Lake Manyara National Park. It typically runs from June to October. During this period, the weather is dry, and the vegetation is less dense, making it easier to spot wildlife as animals gather around water sources, including Lake Manyara. The reduced foliage also improves visibility for game viewing, and the wildlife tends to concentrate in areas with water, making game drives more rewarding. Additionally, the dry season is an excellent time for birdwatching, as many migratory bird species visit the area.

Wet Season (November to May):

The wet season in Lake Manyara occurs from November to May, with peak rainfall between March and May. The wet season brings lush greenery to the park, and the landscape is transformed into a vibrant and scenic environment. The park becomes an oasis for birdlife, with a higher abundance of resident and migratory bird species. The birdwatching opportunities are exceptional during this time.

The wet season is also the time when newborn animals are abundant, and you may witness predator-prey interactions as young animals try to evade predators. However, it’s worth noting that wildlife may disperse during the wet season due to the abundance of water sources throughout the park, making game viewing a bit more challenging.

Shoulder Seasons (November to mid-December and March to May):

The shoulder seasons are transitional periods between the dry and wet seasons. Visiting during these months can offer a balance between fewer tourists and more affordable accommodations. However, wildlife movements may be less predictable during these periods as they adjust to the changing environmental conditions.

In conclusion, Lake Manyara National Park can be visited throughout the year, and the best time to go depends on your preferences. If you prefer better game viewing and lower chances of rainfall, the dry season (June to October) is recommended. For those interested in birdwatching, lush landscapes, and the chance to see newborn animals, the wet season (November to May) might be more appealing. Regardless of the season, Lake Manyara offers a remarkable safari experience with its diverse wildlife and stunning natural beauty.


Geography and Geology of Lake Manyara NP.

Geography of Lake Manyara National Park:

Lake Manyara National Park is located in northern Tanzania, in the Arusha and Manyara regions. It lies at the base of the Great Rift Valley, one of the Earth’s major geological features. The park’s total area covers approximately 330 square kilometers (127 square miles).

The centerpiece of the park is Lake Manyara, a shallow, alkaline lake that stretches over a large portion of its surface area during the wet season. The lake’s water levels fluctuate seasonally, creating a dynamic environment that attracts a diverse range of birdlife and other animals. The lake is surrounded by different types of vegetation, including groundwater forest, acacia woodlands, and grassy plains.

To the west of Lake Manyara National Park lies the Great Rift Valley escarpment, which creates a stunning backdrop for the park’s landscape. The escarpment is a steep geological formation that stretches from Mozambique to the Middle East, and it contributes to the park’s unique topography.

Geology of Lake Manyara National Park:

The formation of Lake Manyara and the surrounding landscape is closely tied to the geological processes associated with the Great Rift Valley. The Great Rift Valley is a vast geological trench that resulted from the tectonic plate movements of the African and Arabian plates. It is an active rift system where the Earth’s crust is slowly pulling apart, causing the land to sink and creating a series of valleys, cliffs, and volcanoes.

The geological history of Lake Manyara National Park involves several key processes:

Rift Valley Formation:

Around 25 million years ago, tectonic forces began pulling apart the African plate, resulting in the formation of the Great Rift Valley. The rift extended from the Red Sea in the north to Mozambique in the south. Lake Manyara is located in the East African Rift, a branch of the larger Great Rift Valley system.

Formation of the Lake:

Lake Manyara itself was formed in a depression along the Rift Valley’s eastern branch. The lake’s basin is part of the larger Manyara-Rift Valley Basin. The lake’s water is primarily sourced from rivers and streams flowing from the nearby Ngorongoro Highlands.

Volcanic Activity:

The area around Lake Manyara has a history of volcanic activity, contributing to the diverse geology of the region. Volcanic ash and lava flows from past eruptions have enriched the soil, making the area fertile and supporting diverse vegetation.

Sedimentary Deposits:

Over time, sediments carried by rivers and streams have accumulated in the lake, contributing to its alkalinity and unique ecology.

Overall, the geography and geology of Lake Manyara National Park have created a diverse and ecologically rich environment. The combination of the Great Rift Valley escarpment, the alkaline lake, the surrounding woodlands, and the diverse wildlife make Lake Manyara a captivating destination for nature enthusiasts and wildlife lovers.


Getting to Lake Manyara National Park.

Lake Manyara National Park is easily accessible from various locations in Tanzania. The park’s proximity to major cities and other popular safari destinations makes it a convenient stop on a northern Tanzania safari circuit. Here are the main transportation options to get to Lake Manyara National Park:

By Air:

The closest major airport to Lake Manyara National Park is the Kilimanjaro International Airport (JRO) in Arusha, Tanzania. From there, visitors can take a domestic flight to the Manyara Airstrip, located near the park. Several domestic airlines operate flights between Kilimanjaro International Airport and Manyara Airstrip. The flight duration is approximately 30 to 45 minutes, depending on the airline and routing.

By Road:

Lake Manyara National Park is well-connected by road and can be accessed from various cities and towns in northern Tanzania. The main entry point to the park is through the town of Mto wa Mbu, which is approximately 126 kilometers (78 miles) from Arusha and 22 kilometers (14 miles) from Karatu.

From Arusha: Arusha is the gateway to many northern Tanzanian safaris. The drive from Arusha to Lake Manyara National Park takes around 2 to 3 hours, depending on road conditions and traffic. It is a scenic journey that allows visitors to observe the changing landscapes as they approach the park.

From Serengeti National Park or Ngorongoro Conservation Area: Lake Manyara is often included as part of the northern safari circuit, along with other popular destinations like Serengeti National Park and Ngorongoro Conservation Area. Visitors can drive from these areas to Lake Manyara, and the journey duration will depend on the starting point. For example, the drive from Serengeti to Lake Manyara could take around 4 to 5 hours, while the drive from Ngorongoro to Lake Manyara might take about 1 to 2 hours.

Organized Safari Tours:

Many visitors opt for organized safari tours with reputable tour operators. These tours typically include transportation to and from Lake Manyara National Park, accommodation, meals, game drives, and the services of experienced guides. Safari tours can be tailored to meet specific preferences and can be an excellent way to explore the park and the surrounding areas hassle-free.

Before traveling to Lake Manyara National Park, it’s essential to check the latest travel advisories and regulations, especially in light of any changes that may occur in local transportation and entry requirements. Overall, Lake Manyara National Park’s accessibility and diverse wildlife make it a compelling destination for a memorable safari experience in Tanzania.


Conservation Measures and Challenges at Lake Manyara NP.

Conservation Measures at Lake Manyara National Park:

Lake Manyara National Park, like other protected areas in Tanzania, is subject to various conservation measures to preserve its rich biodiversity and natural resources. Some of the key conservation efforts at Lake Manyara National Park include:

Wildlife Protection and Anti-Poaching Measures:

Park authorities implement anti-poaching patrols and surveillance to protect wildlife from illegal hunting and poaching activities. These efforts help to maintain the park’s diverse fauna, including the iconic tree-climbing lions, elephants, and various bird species.

Habitat Preservation:

Conservationists focus on preserving the park’s unique habitats, such as the groundwater forest, acacia woodlands, and grassy plains. Ensuring the integrity of these ecosystems is vital for sustaining the diverse plant and animal life that thrives in the park.

Community Engagement and Conservation Awareness:

Engaging local communities living around the park is crucial for successful conservation. Park authorities work with local communities to foster a sense of ownership and responsibility towards the park’s natural resources. Conservation awareness programs are conducted to educate residents and visitors about the importance of protecting the environment and wildlife.

Sustainable Tourism Practices:

Tourism is a significant source of revenue for Lake Manyara National Park. To ensure that tourism activities are sustainable, park management sets guidelines for visitor behavior, such as staying on designated trails during walking safaris and maintaining a safe distance from wildlife. Implementing responsible tourism practices helps minimize the impact on the environment and animal behavior.

Research and Monitoring:

Continuous research and monitoring of wildlife populations, vegetation, and other ecological factors are essential for understanding the park’s dynamics and implementing effective conservation strategies. Data collected through research initiatives informs management decisions and helps track changes in the park’s ecosystem over time.

Challenges at Lake Manyara National Park:

While Lake Manyara National Park benefits from conservation efforts, it also faces several challenges that pose a threat to its ecological balance and long-term sustainability:

Human-Wildlife Conflict:

The proximity of local communities to the park can lead to conflicts between humans and wildlife. Crop damage caused by elephants, for example, can result in negative perceptions and retaliatory actions by some community members.

Poaching and Illegal Activities:

Despite anti-poaching efforts, poaching remains a significant challenge. The demand for illegal wildlife products, such as ivory and bushmeat, continues to threaten the park’s wildlife populations.

Habitat Degradation:

Habitat degradation due to factors like deforestation, invasive species, and climate change can impact the park’s biodiversity and wildlife populations. Maintaining the integrity of different habitats is crucial for the survival of various species.

Tourism Pressure:

Unsustainable tourism practices, such as off-road driving and overcrowding in certain areas, can disturb wildlife and damage the environment. Proper management and regulation of tourism activities are essential to minimize negative impacts.

Climate Change:

Climate change poses a long-term threat to Lake Manyara National Park. Altered weather patterns, increased droughts, and temperature fluctuations can affect the availability of water and food resources for wildlife.

Addressing these challenges requires collaboration between government authorities, conservation organizations, local communities, and tourists. By implementing effective conservation measures and promoting responsible tourism, Lake Manyara National Park can continue to thrive as a valuable wildlife sanctuary and a remarkable destination for visitors to Tanzania.


What to Pack for Lake Manyara National Park.

When preparing for a safari at Lake Manyara National Park, it’s essential to pack wisely to ensure a comfortable and enjoyable experience. The park’s diverse landscape and varying weather conditions require you to pack a range of items to suit different situations. Here’s a comprehensive packing list for your Lake Manyara safari:


  • Lightweight, breathable, and neutral-colored clothing to blend in with the environment
  • Long-sleeved shirts and pants to protect against the sun, insects, and cooler evenings
  • Light jacket or sweater for early mornings and evenings when temperatures can be cooler
  • Hat with a wide brim to shield you from the sun
  • Comfortable closed-toe shoes or hiking boots for walking safaris and game drives
  • Sandals or flip-flops for relaxing at the lodge or campsite
  • Swimwear if your accommodation has a swimming pool

Safari Gear:

  • Binoculars for wildlife and bird watching
  • Camera with extra batteries and memory cards
  • Flashlight or headlamp for nighttime excursions and campsite use
  • Power bank to charge electronics on-the-go
  • Travel adaptor (Type G) for charging your devices
  • Light backpack or daypack for carrying essentials during game drives and walks

Toiletries and Personal Items:

  • Sunscreen with a high SPF to protect against the strong African sun
  • Insect repellent to ward off mosquitoes and other insects
  • Hand sanitizer or wet wipes for hygiene purposes
  • Personal medication and a small first aid kit with basic essentials
  • Prescription glasses and/or contact lenses if needed
  • Toiletries such as toothbrush, toothpaste, and biodegradable soap
  • Tissue or toilet paper (some restrooms may not have them)

Travel Documents:

  • Passport with visa (if required) and other travel documents
  • Travel insurance details and emergency contact information
  • Printed or digital copies of hotel or campsite reservations
  • Wildlife viewing and photography permits (if applicable)

Miscellaneous Items:

  • Cash (small denominations) for tipping and purchases at local markets
  • Reusable water bottle to stay hydrated during your safari
  • Snacks and energy bars for long drives and walks
  • Zip lock bags to keep electronics and valuables dry during rainy periods
  • Waterproof or water-resistant bag or cover for your camera equipment

Optional Items:

  • Field guidebook or app to identify wildlife and birds
  • Scarf or bandana to shield your face from dust during game drives
  • Notebooks and pens for journaling or sketching your safari experiences

Remember that packing light is essential, as there are weight restrictions for luggage on domestic flights and safari vehicles. Most lodges and camps provide laundry services, so you can pack fewer clothes and have them cleaned during your stay. Always check with your tour operator or accommodation for specific recommendations based on the activities and time of year you plan to visit Lake Manyara National Park


Remarks on Lake Manyara National Park.

Lake Manyara National Park stands as a testament to Tanzania’s commitment to wildlife conservation and ecotourism. Its unique blend of ecosystems, diverse wildlife, and captivating scenery make it an enchanting destination for nature enthusiasts and wildlife lovers alike. Whether it’s birdwatching, game drives, or simply immersing in the tranquility of the African wilderness, Lake Manyara National Park promises an unforgettable safari experience.